What is urology?
Urology is an area of medicine dealing with diagnostics and treatment of urogenital system disorders in men and women. The urinary system disease can develop at any age and has severe effects including sterility. But because of the sensible subject, many patients postpone the visit to urologist resulting in worsening of disease progress.
What does urologist treat?
Urologists treat the following diseases:
- prostatitis – acute or chronic inflammation of prostate gland. Prostate (prostate gland) is essential to functioning of male reproductive system, and its infection contamination can cause sterility;
- benign prostatic hyperplasia – benign neoplasm on the glandular tissue resulting in prostate dysfunction and causing urination pain;
- cystitis – infection contamination of urinary bladder resulting in frequent and painful urination. This is often due to the local hypothermia, for instance, when a person was sitting on something cold for a long time;
- urethritis – a disease by which urethra (urinoexcretory canal) becomes inflamed. A patient complains of painful urination, change in urine odor and color. If untreated or in case of self-treatment, bacteria go up and infect urinary bladder – cystitis begins;
- urinary stone disease – a disease by which the calculi or “stones” form in urinary system. They block ducts; renal system cannot remove liquid from the body properly. Inflammation of surrounding tissues develop often in this setting.
Both men and women visit urologists, whereas andrologist is specialized just in the therapy of the male reproductive system.
What does andrologist treat?
The consultation by andrologist is required if a man suffers from the following disorders:
- male sterility of any etiology;
- erectile dysfunction of psychological or physiological nature;
- premature ejaculation and other ejaculation problems;
- varicocele – testicle varicose veins;
- phimosis – painful contracture of preputium;
- cardiometabolic syndrome – dysfunction of hormones release regulating the reproductive system activity.
It is recommended to visit urology department once a year as a minimum for preventive examination.
Urologist treats the diseases of urinary system both in men and women. Women suffer more often from cystitis and urethritis due to the smaller (as compared with men) length of urinary tract. Difficult or numerous deliveries, age-related changes also result in the following disorders:
- urinary incontinence;
- bladder hyperactivity;
- neoplasm of urinary system.
Female urology is focused on effective prevention of diseases of the female genitourinary system.
Difference between urology and nephrology
Unlike the urologist, nephrologist specializes only in treatment of kidney diseases. Kidneys – paired organ responsible for blood filtration and removal of excessive liquid. The most common kidney diseases are the following:
- urinary stone disease;
- kidney failure;
Erectile dysfunction is a common problem the men at any age face with. As a result of the disorder, blood supply to penis is disturbed making sexual intercourse impossible. Early impotency is diagnosticated in men aged 25 and older; it can be caused by the following:
- excessive weight;
- excessive alcohol consumption;
Apart from the external factors, there can be internal causes of weak erection: metabolic disorders (for instance, diabetes mellitus), hormone imbalance, prostate neoplasm, genitalia infection.
Types and causes of impotency
Doctors distinguish two types of impotency (erectile dysfunction):
- psychological impotency – it occurs in the setting of neurosis or depressed mood, a patient preserves morning erection;
- physiological dysfunction – it occurs in case of anatomical disorders, infections, disorder of endocrine profile.
Problems with sexual vigor can start at any age. Andrologist can determine the cause.
Recovery of sexual vigor is possible only after removal of disorder causes. In case of psychological problems, reduction of stress level can be helpful, as well as day regimen observance. In case of physiological (organic) impotency, it is necessary to treat infections, remove tumors, recover endocrine profile. One can achieve stable result with a help of the physiotherapeutic procedures.
For instance, shockwave therapy in urology is applied for impotency treatment. The method is based on the action of waves with different frequency penetrating into tissues, initiate their renewal and improve blood supply to the cells. Erection improvement is apparent after several sessions.
Male sterility can be as follows:
- aspermatogenic – is caused by spermatogenesis disorder: sperm cells are not developed enough and cannot fertilize the ovum;
- genetic – is caused by minor chromosome mutations affecting the semen quality;
- normospermatogenic – develops after severe infections of urogenital system, improper or late treatment;
- immunological – body’s own antibodies destroy seminal fluid;
- mixed – occurs due to several reasons.
Examination and diagnostics in urology help to establish the type of sterility so that the doctor can develop the treatment regimen.
Some urologic diseases require minimally invasive surgeries. You can undergo them at medical center “ON Clinic”. Minor urology involves the following procedures:
- Circumcision or genital mutilation;
- Vasoresection – crosscutting of spermoducts as contraceptive method;
- Selective tomy of penis nerves – procedure performed for sexual intercourse lengthening;
- Penis frenuloplasty
- Prostate puncturing.
The minor urology department also deals with treatment of phimosis (posthioplasty), varicocele, performs enlargement of glans penis.
Urinary system diseases in men and women
Infections and inflammations of urogenital system develop as affected by numerous factors:
- Local hypothermia
- Sexually transmitted diseases
- Decrease in immunity after serious illness
- Disorder of endocrine profile
- Bad habits.
Symptoms depend on pathology but in almost all cases a patient complains on frequent painful urination, burning sensation in urethra, permanent desire to urinate.
Men’s symptoms to be addressed to urologist
It is necessary to make appointment to urologist if you have the following symptoms:
- Pathologic (profuse, malodorous) discharge from urethra;
- Frequent desire to urinate
- Pain during ejaculation
- Burning sensation with urination
- Lower abdominal tensive pain
- Change in urine color and foreign impurities in it
- Change of skin cover in anogenital zone: for instance, men can have condyloma and papilloma acuminata.
Women’s symptoms to be addressed to urologist
Men and women have similar symptoms and signs of urologic disorders. The women complain on the following:
- Cutting and burning sensation with urination
- Lower abdominal tensive pain irradiating to legs
- Malodorous discharge from urethra
- Pain during sexual intercourse
- Severe back pain
- Frequent urge for urinary bladder emptying.
In case of onset of these symptoms, it is necessary to visit urologist.
Examination by urologist
Many patients feel uncomfortable to visit urologist for examination, that is why they postpone their visit to doctor. Timely visit to medical center “ON Clinic” will help to undergo treatment in time and avoid the development of major complications.
Examination and diagnostics in urology start from check-up. Doctor interviews a patient, listens to patient’s complaints. Then a patient is asked to strip, take off the underwear. After that, doctor checks the integrity of skin cover in anogenital zone, detects neoplasm, redness.
The next stage is examination on the gynecological examination chair (for women) and prostate rectal examination (for men). Upon examination completion, doctor can prescribe additional tests.
What tests can urologists administer?
Diagnostics of urological diseases suppose the following examinations for men:
- Pelvic ultrasound (including scrotum ultrasound)
- Vasoactive (vascular) test for erectile dysfunction
- Blood and urine tests
- Urethra scraping
The following examinations are administered for women:
- Pelvic ultrasound
- Blood and urine tests
- Urethra scraping
Diagnostics of urogenital system allows the doctor to get a clear idea of the ongoing processes, helps to establish the cause of the pathology and develop effective treatment. You can make appointment for examination by contact phone number of the medical center “ON Clinic”.