Renal function may be impaired in cases of diseases of other organs. They are affected by hypertension, systemic scleroderma, systemic lupus erythematosus, diabetes mellitus and purulent-septic infectious diseases.
Nephrology finds out the causes of pathologies, deals with diagnosis and treatment of renal diseases. The specialist who treats these diseases with conservative therapy is called a nephrologist.
Therefore, timely consultation by nephrologist will protect the patient against serious complications: acute and chronic renal insufficiency, abscess and sepsis. In addition, early treatment of kidneys can prevent surgery, and therapy is limited to tablets.
Consultation by nephrologist begins with interview and medical history intake. The doctor asks about the symptoms, when they arose and with what they may be associated. After information gathering, nephrologist refers the patient to be tested. If necessary, patient may undergo the following tests:
- urinary tract ultrasound examination;
- computed tomography;
- excretory urography;
The patient brings the examination results, and the nephrologist receives information about the kidneys functions. When the results are known, there is a medical history and a diagnosis is made, the doctor prescribes treatment. It depends on the severity of the disease: for example, uncomplicated pyelonephritis can be treated with medication, and large calculi in urinary tract must be removed by surgery.
What does nephrologist treat?
Nephrologist treats the following diseases:
- chronic and acute renal failure;
- chronic kidney disease;
- diabetic nephropathy;
- kidney damage due to other diseases.
During pregnancy, the kidneys are vulnerable. For example, due to hormonal changes, pyelonephritis can provoke. Also, kidney pathology can lead to pregnancy complications. For example, kidney failure can cause a stillbirth or delayed fetal development in mother. Therefore, nephrologist is needed during pregnancy: to control the functions of the urinary system and its treatment.
Tests are needed for appointment with nephrologist
In order for the doctor to know how the excretory system and the body as a whole work, the following tests are needed:
- clinical blood count;
- clinical urine analysis;
- biochemical blood test for urea, creatinine, electrolytes, pH markers, the level of C-reactive proteins and glucose;
- toxic samples if there is a likelihood of heavy metal poisoning or a bite of a poisonous animal;
- Pasternacki test, Zimnitsky test.
During the visit, nephrologist will tell you what laboratory tests need to be done.
Nephrologist and urologist – what is the difference?
Both doctors treat kidneys. The difference is that the nephrologist uses non-operative methods (tablets, liquors, diet, prevention), and urologist – by surgical methods. Urologist is needed in cases where drug therapy has not given effect or the patient has kidney defects that cannot be cured in non-operative manner.
Also, the urologist deals with reproductive system. Depending on the urology section, doctor can treat male genital organs, oncological diseases of the genitourinary system, pathology of the excretory system against the background of tuberculosis or diseases of the urinary system in children and women.